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Common APA Reference Variations


The following page describes the various, but consistent, rules that apply to nearly all references with regard to the correct format when there are a different number of authors.

One Author

In-text citation

Likert (1967) or (Likert, 1967)

Reference List

Likert, R. (1967).The human organization: Its management and value. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Two Authors

In-text citation

Ambrose and Cropanzano (2003) or (Ambrose & Cropanzano, 2003)

Reference List

Ambrose, M. L., & Cropanzano, R. (2003). A longitudinal analysis of organizational fairness: An examination of reactions to tenure and promotion decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 266-275.

Three to Five Authors

In-text citation

When first citation in the text:

Smith, Glass, and Miller (1980) or (Smith, Glass, and Miller, 1980)

For second and subsequent citations in the text:

Smith et al. (1980) or (Smith et al., 1980)

Reference List

Smith, M. L., Glass, G. V., & Miller, T. I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Six to Seven Authors

In-text citation

Pennington, Rogers, Bennetto, et al. (1997) or (Pennington et al., 1997)

Reference List

Pennington, B. F., Rogers, S. J., Bennetto, L., Griffith, E. M., Reed, D. T., & Shyu, V. (1997). Validity tests of the executive dysfunction hypothesis of autism. In J. Russell (Ed.), Autism as an executive disorder (pp. 143-178). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Eight or More Authors

In-text citation

Niaura et al. (2000) or (Niaura et al., 2000)

Reference List

Niaura, R., Banks, S. M., Ward, K. D., Stoney, C. M., Spiro, A., III, Aldwin, C. M., et al. (2000). Hostility and the metabolic syndrome in older males: The Normative Aging Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 7-16.